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A recent study found that the domestic dog is descended from wolves tamed less than 16, years ago south of the Yangtze River in China. There are many different wolf subspecies , such as the Arctic wolf.
Adult wolves are usually 1. Wolves have fur made up of two layers. The top layer is resistant to dirt , and the underlayer is water resistant.
The color of their fur can be any combination of grey, white, red, brown, and black. Studies have shown that in they have found 23 red gray wolves.
Wolves live in groups called "packs". They are pack hunters. The members of the pack are usually family members, often just the parents and offspring.
Wolves that are not family may join if they do not have a pack of their own. Packs are usually up to 12 wolves, but they can be as small as two or as large as The leaders are called the parent breeding male and the parent breeding female.
Their territory is marked by scent and howling; they will fight any intruders. Adult females usually give birth to five or six pups in a litter. Wolves make a noise called a howl.
They howl to communicate with each other from long distances and to mark the edges of their territory. Wolves have a complicated body language. Wolves are carnivores and eat mostly medium to large size hoofed animals unguligrades , but they will also eat rodents , insectivores and foxes.
Some wolves have been seen eating salmon , seals , beached whales , lizards , snakes and birds. They also eat moose, bison, deer and other large animals.
Wolves usually stalk old or sick animals, but they do not always catch what they stalk. They may go days without food. Sometimes only one out of twelve hunts are successful.
But the way they eat stays the same. The alpha male and female feed first. Then the other members feed. Sometimes especially if the prey they have killed is large wolves may store food and come back that day to feed on it.
In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Do you remember the boy who cried wolf?
Golf , wohl , Wohl. Arctic wolf - der Polarwolf Canis lupus arctos. Compared to its closest wild cousins the coyote and golden jackal , the gray wolf is larger and heavier, with a broader snout, shorter ears, a shorter torso and longer tail.
The gray wolf usually carries its head at the same level as the back, raising it only when alert. Generally, wolves have a high heart weight of 0.
Tibetan gray wolves, which occupy territories up to 3, above sea level , have evolved hearts that withstand the low oxygen levels.
This force is sufficient to break open most bones. A similar trend was found with the carnassial tooth bite force, but with the extinct dire wolf and gray wolf both measuring , then followed by the African hunting dog , the dhole , and the dingo The gray wolf has very dense and fluffy winter fur, with short underfur and long, coarse guard hairs.
Especially long hairs are on the shoulders, and almost form a crest on the upper part of the neck. The hairs on the cheeks are elongated and form tufts.
The ears are covered in short hairs, which strongly project from the fur. Short, elastic and closely adjacent hairs are present on the limbs from the elbows down to the calcaneal tendons.
Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur, and does not collect ice when warm breath is condensed against it. Older wolves generally have more white hairs in the tip of the tail, along the nose and on the forehead.
The winter fur is retained longest in lactating females, though with some hair loss around their nipples.
Coat color ranges from almost pure white through various shades of blond, cream, and ochre to grays, browns, and blacks,  with variation in fur color tending to increase in higher latitudes.
In the rare cases where other wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably an immature animal 1—3 years of age unlikely to compete for breeding rights with the mated pair.
In some cases, a lone wolf is adopted into a pack to replace a deceased breeder. Wolves are highly territorial animals, and generally establish territories far larger than they require to survive in order to assure a steady supply of prey.
Wolves defend their territories from other packs through a combination of scent marking , direct attacks and howling see Communication. Scent marking is used for territorial advertisement, and involves urination, defecation and ground scratching.
Such markers can last for 2—3 weeks,  and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals.
The gray wolf is generally monogamous ,  with mated pairs usually remaining together for life. Upon the death of one mated wolf, pairs are quickly re-established.
Since males often predominate in any given wolf population, unpaired females are a rarity. Such gray wolves are termed " Casanova wolves" and, unlike males from established packs, they do not form pair bonds with the females they mate with.
Some gray wolf packs may have multiple breeding females this way, as is the case in Yellowstone National Park. This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them.
The age of first breeding in gray wolves depends largely on environmental factors: This is further demonstrated by the fact that captive wolves have been known to breed as soon as they reach 9—10 months, while the youngest recorded breeding wolves in the wild were 2 years old.
Females are capable of producing pups every year, with one litter annually being the average. Unlike the coyote, the gray wolf never reaches reproductive senescence.
The gestation period lasts 62—75 days, with pups usually being born in the summer period. Wolves bear relatively large pups in small litters compared to other canid species.
The milk canines erupt after one month. Pups first leave the den after 3 weeks. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young.
Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of 3—4 weeks. Pups have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: Actual fights to establish hierarchy usually occur at 5—8 weeks of age.
This is in contrast to young foxes and coyotes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behavior. Although social animals, single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs, with single wolves having occasionally been observed to kill large prey such as moose , bison and muskoxen unaided.
Because of this, it rarely manages to capture hidden hares or birds, though it can easily follow fresh tracks. The actual killing method varies according to prey species.
With large prey, mature wolves usually avoid attacking frontally, instead focusing on the rear and sides of the animal.
Large prey, such as moose, is killed by biting large chunks of flesh from the soft perineum area, causing massive blood loss.
With small, mouse -like prey, wolves leap in a high arc and immobilize it with their forepaws. Such instances are common in domestic animals, but rare in the wild.
In the wild, surplus killing primarily occurs during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep thus impeding the movements of prey  or during the denning period, when wolves require a ready supply of meat when denbound.
Once prey is brought down, wolves begin to feed excitedly, ripping and tugging at the carcass in all directions, and bolting down large chunks of it.
When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups. Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transport them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace.
Wolves typically commence feeding by consuming the larger internal organs of their prey, such as the heart , liver , lungs and stomach lining.
The kidneys and spleen are eaten once they are exposed, followed by the muscles. While less gregarious canids generally possess simple repertoires of visual signals, wolves have more varied signals that subtly inter grade in intensity.
Passive submission usually occurs as a reaction to the approach of a dominant animal , and consists of the submissive wolf lying partly on its back and allowing the dominant wolf to sniff its anogenital area.
Similar to humans, gray wolves have facial color patterns in which the gaze direction can be easily identified, although this is often not the case in other canid species.
In , a study compared the facial color pattern across 25 canid species. The results suggested that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication, and that especially gray wolves use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.
Gray wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts , to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site , to locate each other during a storm or unfamiliar territory and to communicate across great distances.
Pups almost never howl, while yearling wolves produce howls ending in a series of dog-like yelps. The pitch usually remains constant or varies smoothly, and may change direction as many as four or five times.
When pursuing prey, they emit a higher pitched howl, vibrating on two notes. When closing in on their prey, they emit a combination of a short bark and a howl.
The two are however mutually intelligible , as North American wolves have been recorded to respond to European-style howls made by biologists.
Other vocalisations of wolves are usually divided into three categories: Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do, but bark a few times and retreat from perceived danger.
Pups commonly growl when playing. One variation of the howl is accompanied by a high pitched whine, which precedes a lunging attack.
The wolf has a large number of apocrine sweat glands on the face, lips, back, and between the toes. A combination of apocrine and eccrine sweat glands on the feet allows the wolf to deposit its scent whilst scratching the ground, which usually occurs after urine marking and defecation during the breeding season.
As the skin on the back is usually folded, this provides a microclimate for bacterial propagation around the glands. During piloerection, the guard hairs on the back are raised and the skin folds spread, thus releasing scent.
The pre-caudal scent glands may play a role in expressing aggression, as combative wolves raise the base of their tails whilst drooping the tip, thus positioning the scent glands at the highest point.
The components of anal sac secretions vary according to season and gender, thus indicating that the secretions provide information related to gender and reproductive state.
The secretions of the preputial glands may advertise hormonal condition or social position, as dominant wolves have been observed to stand over subordinates, apparently presenting the genital area for investigation,  which may include genital licking.
Urine marking is the best-studied means of olfactory communication in wolves. Its exact function is debated, though most researchers agree that its primary purpose is to establish boundaries.
Wolves urine mark more frequently and vigorously in unfamiliar areas, or areas of intrusion, where the scent of other wolves or canids is present.
So-called raised leg urination RLU is more common in male wolves than in females, and may serve the purpose of maximizing the possibility of detection by conspecifics, as well as reflect the height of the marking wolf.
Only dominant wolves typically use RLU, with subordinate males continuing to use the juvenile standing posture throughout adulthood.
The gray wolf is a habitat generalist, and can occur in deserts , grasslands , forests and arctic tundras. Habitat use by gray wolves is strongly correlated with the abundance of prey, snow conditions, absence or low livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography.
The warmth of the footpads is regulated independently of the rest of the body, and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.
During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period.
When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation.
Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade.
On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1—3 openings.
The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens. As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family.
Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways.
Although wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates , they are not fussy eaters. Smaller sized animals that may supplement the diet of wolves include marmots , hares , badgers , foxes , weasels , ground squirrels , mice , hamsters , voles and other rodents , as well as insectivores.
They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs. When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available.
In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe.
Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer.
Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry.
Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months.
Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills.
Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them.
Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites.
Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves. Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them.
Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills. Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses.
Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,  but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas.
Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines. Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges.
Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely.
Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens.
Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees. Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines.
Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines.
Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers.
Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.
Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities.
Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species.
In Europe, the oldest gray wolf remains were found in France and date to ,—, years ago. In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII.
Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down.
Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives.
By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia.
The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II. In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations.
In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area. The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison.
However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century. Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland.
Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin.
Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals.
The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.
In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species.
Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.
By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations.
The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,—1, By the wolves in the Western Alps imposed a significant burden on traditional sheep and goat husbandry with a loss of over 5, animals in In Spain , the species occurs in Galicia , Leon , and Asturias.
Although hundreds of Iberian wolves are illegally killed annually, the population has expanded south across the river Duero and east to the Asturias and Pyrenees Mountains.
In , wolves began recolonising central Sweden after a twelve-year absence, and have since expanded into southern Norway. As of , the total number of Swedish and Norwegian wolves is estimated to be at least one hundred, including eleven breeding pairs.
The gray wolf is fully protected in Sweden and partially controlled in Norway. Wolf populations in Poland have increased to about — individuals since being classified as a game species in Poland plays a fundamental role in providing routes of expansion into neighbouring Central European countries.
In the east, its range overlaps with populations in Lithuania, Belarus , Ukraine , and Slovakia. A population in western Poland expanded into eastern Germany and in the first pups were born on German territory.
A few Slovakian wolves disperse into the Czech Republic, where they are afforded full protection. Wolves in Slovakia, Ukraine and Croatia may disperse into Hungary, where the lack of cover hinders the buildup of an autonomous population.
Although wolves have special status in Hungary, they may be hunted with a year-round permit if they cause problems.
Romania has a large population of wolves, numbering 2, animals. The wolf has been a protected animal in Romania since , although the law is not enforced.
The number of wolves in Albania and Macedonia is largely unknown, despite the importance the two countries have in linking wolf populations from Greece to those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
Although protected, sometimes wolves are still illegally killed in Greece, and their future is uncertain.
Englisch Wolf VideoThe Wolf of Wall Street Official Trailer
However, wolves only eat livestock when they can not find wild prey. Wolves in Britain were all killed after centuries of hunting.
The last wolves survived in the Scottish Highlands. There is a legend that the last one was killed there in by a character called MacQueen. Within the past ten years, there have been studies that are in favour of allowing new wolves to come and live in the English countryside and Scottish Highlands again.
One study was in Researchers from Norway , Britain , and Imperial College London decided that wolves would help add back plants and birds that now are eaten by deer.
The wolves would keep the deer population lower. People were generally positive, but farmers living in rural areas wanted to be paid for livestock that were killed by the wolves.
Many folktales such as Little Red Riding Hood have wolves in them. Media related to Canis lupus at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Grey wolf Temporal range: Pleistocene — present , years—present. Linnaeus , . Tomus I in Latin 10 ed.
Retrieved November 23, Molecular Biology and Evolution. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 1 December Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.
Changes in the skull morphology of the Arctic wolf, Canis lupus arctos , during the twentieth century. Journal of Zoology Retrieved 17 November Retrieved from " https: CS1 Latin-language sources la CS1 maint: Views Read Change Change source View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. As human settlements and hunters entered their territories, wolf populations have declined or even been eliminated.
The English wolf, once known throughout the British Isles, is now extinct. Wolves arrived in the British Isles at the end of the Ice Age, approximately 10, to 12, years ago.
Packs of wolves followed the migrating herds of deer, boar and grazing animals as they moved north. Skeletal remains have confirmed that wolves lived throughout the British Isles, including England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
Historical accounts from as early as 1, years ago mention wolf hunting as a way to pay tribute to kings and nobles.
Servants to the kings could be granted land on the condition that they rid the land of wolves. Wolf-hunting parties were often organized by kings and nobility.
Even Mary, Queen of Scots, reportedly organized and participated in wolf hunts. By the turn of the 16th century, wolves were extinct in England and Wales.
Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.
Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.
Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.
Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names.
Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work" [ citation needed ].
The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.
The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other.
The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this. The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains.
In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf.
His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived.
Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.
The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.
The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.
The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.
Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.
It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.
A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.
Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.
Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.
Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs.
In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members.
The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations. Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.
Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.
The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off.
Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase,  though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.
The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.
Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.
Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia.
Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals,  with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.
Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day.
The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. During the 50 years to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia.
Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.
Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, Canis lupus, and its subspecies.
For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present ,—0 years BP .
Linnaeus , . Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology.
Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves.
Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.
This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.
This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.
Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years.
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Wild Mammals of North America: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference.
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